Monday, April 17, 2017

Taiwan 3. Plants without flowers



Crypsinus hastatus
The dominant conifer in Taiwan is a member of the
cypress family,  Chamecyparis obtusa var formosana.  
It might be thought of as "Taiwan's redwood." Historically.
 it was valued for construction of palaces and temples, 
both here and in Japan.  The massive, old-growth trees are 
mostly gone, but new plantations abound. 

The mountains of Taiwan are typically rainy and cool, ideal places for non-flowering plants such as mosses, liverworts, club mosses, ferns, and gymnosperms.  Though lacking the colors of flowering plants and often overlooked, such plants provide varied and fascinating vegetative structures essential to the mountain vegetation. Unfortunately, they are more difficult to identify, usually requiring attention to details that can only be seen under a microscope, and this being a casual trip, I did not have the tools or the permits to collect specimens for later study.  Be that as it may, I found a decent resource online, the Flora of Taiwan, which has helped me narrow down the choices.  So ID's on most of these are educated guesses, and I look forward to corrections from people who know.
The stump of an ancient Taiwan cypress tree provides a home for numerous
mosses, club mosses and ferns at Alishan Park.


More than a dozen species of the club moss genus, Selaginella, live in Taiwan.
This one appears to be S. nipponica or S. boninensis.  Club mosses are vascular
plants, unlike true mosses.

Selaginella doederleinii has more flattened, fern-like shoots.
Large, thallose liverworts are abundant in Taiwan.
A Marchantia-like liverwort, sporting gemmae cups, peeks out from a mat of unidentified moss.

Liverworts sometimes form continuous mats along moist, rocky hillsides.
A distant relative of Selaginella, Lycopodium cernuum, is widespread in the world, occuring here in the mountains of Taiwan.
An unidentified fern hangs from rocky crevasses.


A moss with an interesting palmate growth form.

One of five species of Alsophila native to Taiwan


A bird's-nest fern, Asplenium - one of dozens in Taiwan


Another fern decorates a rocky wall. ID anyone?




Sunday, March 12, 2017

Taiwan 2. December Wildflowers


The large grass, Miscanthus sinensis, dominates much of the
open land in Taiwan, with spectacular bloom spikes in
December.
In my previous installment, I focused on some of the spectacular cultivated plants of Taiwan. Here I return to my core subject of wildflowers.  We usually use the term wildflower for native plants, as opposed to cultivated plants and invasive weeds from elsewhere.  In Taiwan, however, it is sometimes difficult to tell what is truly native and what has been brought from somewhere else.

In the spectacular Taroko Gorge, a species of Hibiscus greets
December visitors.

A close-up of the Hibscus from Taroko, which may
be either H. taiwaniensis or H. mutabilis
People, known today as Taiwan Aborigines, have been in Taiwan for at least 6000 years, having migrated here from southern China.  Those first people most likely brought some plants with them, on purpose as well as by accident.  Their descendants didn't stay put , and became master boat-builders and navigators. The ancestors of the Austronesian people who  eventually colonized much of the Pacific,  parts of Asia, and Madagascar., originated in Taiwan . In their comings and goings, these sailors probably brought other plants.  300-400 years ago, another wave of immigration from the mainland, this time of Han Chinese, came to the island, giving rise to ethnic Taiwanese.

With the introduction of Chinese civilization to Taiwan came more trade and active interest in horticulture, and likely more "non-native" plants.  Be that as it may, these are some of the  wild plants that I found blooming in Taiwan during the month of December.

Our three weeks in Taiwan took us to Taroko Gorge, Alishan, and Sun Moon Lake in the central mountains, as well as tropical Kenting National Park in the south, and Yangmingshan National Park in the North.

A species of Pandanus from the southern end of Taiwan.
Ipomoea pes-caprae grows along Taiwan's beaches as it does
in Florida and tropical beaches around the world.
So we saw truly tropical plants, such as screw pine (Pandanus spp.) and beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae) which can be found on tropical and subtropical beaches throughout the world.  Surprisingly, we also saw many plants blooming in the central mountains, where it was already decidedly chilly.  Except for the highest peaks, there is no real winter in Taiwan, so one can find flowers year-round.
Phoenix hanceana is the native member of the date palm
genus in Taiwan.  Here it is growing along the wind-swept
coastal bluffs in Kenting National Park.
Evolvulus alsinoides is another member of the 
morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.


Yellow members of the sunflower family, Asteraceae, 
are common in the mountains. 


Another late-blooming yellow Asteraceae from the mountains
Tithonia diversifolia blooms abundantly on mountain slopes
west of Alishan.

A morning glory, Ipomoea cheirophylla, is common along
roadsides throughout Taiwan.
A wild begonia blooms in the Yangmingshan National Park  near Taipei.

A yellow member of the mint family, Salvia nipponica, continues
to bloom in Yangmingshan at about 2500 ft elevation, despite chilly
December temperatures.






Monday, January 9, 2017

Taiwan 1. Island of Flowers

The coastline of Taiwan consists of hundreds of  miles of
sandy beaches as well as rocky cliffs.
Imagine Florida, with its subtropical climate and sunny, palm-lined beaches.  But instead of a patchwork of lakes and swamps in the center, imagine a mountain range, with peaks reaching to almost 13,000 feet. Well, then you'd have Taiwan. The mountains add hugely to the botanical diversity of the island, being clad in tropical to subtropical rain forest at the  lower elevations and mossy cloud forests higher up. Snow falls in the winter at the highest elevations. So it is an exciting place for a botanical excursion. 
The massive central mountain range of Taiwan contains many peaks over 10,000 feet in elevation.


Taiwan is actually smaller and a bit further south than Florida.  It's roughly 1/4 the size of peninsular Florida, which makes its massive mountain range even more impressive.  Its northern tip is at about the same latitude as the Everglades, and its southern tip would be somewhere in Cuba.  The Tropic of Cancer runs through the middle of the island.  But you get the analogy: Florida with a touch of the Andes.

I was recently there, as often, for non-botanical purposes, but with camera ready, I recorded as much as I could of the plant life I saw.  This first installment can be considered a special version of this website, which should be called "I brake for not-so-wildflowers," as I will focus on the cultivated plant life of Taiwan.  Cultivated plants are often also quite brake-worthy.



Visitors from all  over Taiwan enjoy the many varieties of chrysanthemum displayed at the annual show in December.

The first weekend after our arrival in late November, my brother-in-law took us to the former residence of the late President, Chiang Kai-Shek, which is now the site of the annual Chrysanthemum Festival.  Chrysanthemums originated in China, where there are many wild relatives.  The Chinese began cultivating and breeding Chrysanthemums over 3500 years ago, and now there are thousands of hybrids and cultivated varieties.  They are derived originally from Chrysanthemum indicum, but have involved hybridization with other species.



Some non-chrysanthemums, such as this Liatris, add
variety to the exhibition.
Chrysanthemum trees are constructed for the annual show.
Numerous varieties of chrysanthemum are
displayed and labeled.


















Traveling around Taiwan, one sees many other cultivated plants, including marvelous varieties of tropical fruit, orchids, flowering trees, and plants that make a Floridian feel at home, like hibiscus, orchid trees (Bauhinia spp.), bougainvillea, and at the time I was there, poinsettias blooming along the highways.  Even some of the weeds are the same, like the annoying beggar tick, Bidens pilosa, whose prickly achenes will stick all over your clothes if you carelessly walk into a patch of them.

Betel nut palms (Areca catechu) are everywhere in the Taiwan
countryside.
One thing not common in Florida is the betel nut palm, which is literally everywhere in Taiwan.  That is because formerly the disgusting habit of chewing betel nut was widespread here, as it has been throughout southeast Asia and the Pacific.  In fact it is still relatively common in Taiwan, though chewing in public is strongly discouraged.  Betel nut contains a mild stimulant, and is habit-forming.  It is sold primarily in peculiar little glass-enclosed booths located with fair frequency along city streets and highways.  Distinctive flashing lights outside the booth identify the facilities to prowling betel-addicts.


Radiating spokes of flashing
lights indicate the location of
a betel nut booth.
The booths are typically "manned" by attractive young women, and this evidently is part of the modern betel nut culture - a little eye-candy to go along with your chewing pleasure.  Signs in many places boast that they have the most beautiful betel nut "queen" at their facility.   There are stories that in some locations the girls are dressed in bikinis (or less!), and you can only imagine where that might lead.

The other major attraction among the cultivated plants of Taiwan is the variety of fruit.  We arrived during the sugar apple (Annona squamosa) harvest season, and had the pleasure of sampling two different varieties: the standard sugar apple and the pineapple sugar apple. The tough skin of the sugar apple separates around its scale-like units when ripe to reveal the sweet creamy fruit surrounding several to many hard black seeds.  Dragon fruit and bananas were also fruiting, but they tend to be ripening all year long.
Giant models of sugar apple fruits welcome
visitors to one of the major growing areas in
Taiwan.
Sugar apple fruits are protected by paper bags as they ripen.
Sugar apples are ready for customers at a roadside stand.
Roselle is the fruit-like fleshy calyx of Hibiscus
sabdariffa, and quite popular in Taiwan.




Calla lilies (Zantedeschia aethiopica) for the florist trade are grown in
running water in Taiwan.
One surprise was to find a calla lily farm in the mountains east of Taipei.  We'd just come down from Yang Ming Mountain, where we had seen a rich community of native plants (to be described in a future installment) and were looking for a lunch spot.  Someone recommended  a new restaurant, which happened to opened by a calla lily grower in the middle of his farm.  Calla lilies are native to South Africa (see South Africa, part 1), and of course are a staple of the floral trade throughout the world.






Thursday, February 11, 2016

Australia 4. An excursion in New South Wales



Eastern New South Wales is a land of gentle, rolling mountains and coastal
plains covered in green forest.
Hakea multilineata is a spectacular member of the Proteaceae.
After several weeks in Western Australia, I flew to Canberra, Australia's capital, to visit my old friend from Papua New Guinea, Heinar Streimann.  Heinar at this time was the resident expert on bryophytes at the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra.  We decided to "go bush" for old times sake, and the surrounding state of New South Wales has plenty to offer.   The eastern part of New South Wales prevents quite a contrast to Western Australia, and indeed to most of this rather arid continent.  The dominant color is green, as lush forests dominate from the coastal areas up to the mountains.  Wildflowers are to be found in great diversity, but not in the dominating displays we see in the drier west.  Here, some of the most interesting plants have no flowers at all and live in the shade of the large eucalyptus trees that dominate nearly all of Australia's forests.Wildflowers are most evident in open habitats in the lower elevations.  Orchids, legumes, and members of the myrtle and protea families are prominent here as elsewhere.  I was only able to scratch the surface here, but this brief sample will hopefully inspire you to visit for yourself.  I don't have tools at my disposal to properly identify all the flowers displayed here, so any of you who know these plants, please don't hesitate to send me identifications or corrections.
This coastal heath is dominated by Allocasuarina
nana
(Casuarinaceae)

Allocasuarina nana has jointed green stems and  rudimentary leaves.  The flowers are 
tiny, and hidden in reddish cone-like clusters.
A ground orchid in the genus Glossodia.
 Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae) struggles to keep above shifting beach sand.

Boronia megastigma (Rutaceae) is a common shrub in the lowlands of New South Wales.

Isopogon anemonifolius is another member of the widespread southern hemisphere
family Proteaceae.  The bloom is a compound head of many small flowers.



The tubular red flowers of Epacris longiflora (Ericaceae) are similar to some of the heaths
in South Africa, and  are probably also pollinated by nectar-feeding birds.
Epacris breviflora has shorter, white flowers.

Dracophyllum secundum is a third member of the
Ericaceae blooming during my visit.
The bright blue flowers of Dampiera diversifolia (Goodeniaceae) fill a fertile space between rocks.
The legume, Kennedia rubicunda, creeps along the
ground.
Forests in the Snowy Mountains are dominated by tall Eucalyptus trees, with an
understory of tree ferns.

Despite their tropical appearance, the tree ferns of
the snowy mountains are cold-tolerant. These have
been coated with snow in a late season storm. 
The taller tree ferns are in the genus Cyathea, and the
shorter ones in the genus Dicksonia.
Tmesipteris is a relative of the common fern relative, Psilotum.
Tree ferns frame an inviting waterfall in the Snowy Mountains.

Many tree ferns in this area have been poached, their trunks hacked off for the horticultural tree fern fiber trade, or for rooting and sale as specimen plants.
Tetratheca shiressii

Dichopogon strictus or fimbriatum (syn.: Arthropodium fimbriatum) The
picture is not clear enough
for a positive ID of this interesting
monocot in the Asparagaceae.
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